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Images Pre-Lab Worksheets

Student’s Name

Date Due

Complete the following questions prior to the lab class.

1.    Define:









2. The basic information needed to determine the function of a muscle includes:





3.    Fill in the following table by:

A.   Listing characteristics that can be observed while examining a person

B.   Identifying which sensory modality is used to perceive the characteristic


Sensory Modality

Example: Foot slap while walking

Auditory and visual




















4.    Label Figures 1-1 and 1-2 as either anatomical position or fundamental position.

Figure 1-1

Figure 1-2

5.    When viewing Figure 1-1, you are observing the person’s (anterior/ventral or posterior/dorsal) surface.


6.    When considered together, the right arm and leg can be referred to as (contralateral or ipsilateral).


7.    Using Figure 1-1 and the descriptive terms listed below, describe the location of the following body segments. Terms may be used more than once.

Medial Superior Proximal Superficial Anterior
Lateral Inferior   Distal      Deep        Posterior

A.   Tibia: The ___________________ bone of the lower leg

B.   Fibula: The ___________________ bone of the lower leg

C.   Ribs in relationship to the scapula: ___________

D.   The elbow joint is at which end of the humerus? _______________________________

E.   The brachialis muscle lies underneath the biceps; therefore, it is ______________ to the biceps.

F.   The head is ______________ to the chest.

G.   The ________________ end of the tibia is at the knee joint.

H.   The great toe is on the ______________ side of the foot.

I.   The eyes are _____________ and ____________ to the mouth.

J.   The radius is on the ______________ side of the forearm.

K.   The ulna is on the ______________ side of the forearm.

L.   The scapula is on the ______________ side of the trunk.

M.   The shoulder girdle is ________________ to the pelvic girdle.

N.   Skin is ________ to muscle.






8.    Match the major bone or feature of the body segment with the descriptive term for that segment.

______ Arm

A.   Cervical vertebrae

______ Forearm

B.   Chest

______ Hand

C.   Pelvis

______ Thigh

D.   Radius

______ Leg

E.   Femur

______ Foot

F.   Fingers

______ Thorax

G.   Tibia

______ Abdomen

H.   Humerus

______ Neck

I.   Toes

9.    Name and describe the two types of linear motion, which is also called translatory motion.



10.   In which type of motion do all the parts move:

A.   The same distance:

B.   Different distances:

11.   In Figure 1-3, identify linear motion and angular motion.


FIGURE 1-3 Bicycle rider.


12.   Match the following joint motion with the correct description. The reference position is the anatomical position unless otherwise indicated. Use each answer only once.

______ Pulling your scapulae together

A.   Flexion

______ Moving your leg toward the midline

B.   Extension

______ Rolling your arm outward

C.   Hyperextension

______ Moving your hand toward the thumb side

D.   Abduction

______ Turning your foot inward

E.   Adduction

______ Moving through a cone-shaped arc

F.   Supination

______ Moving your arm across the body at shoulder level

G.   Pronation

______ Moving your hand down the side of your leg

H.   Ulnar deviation

______ Shoulder motion during bowling backswing

I.   Radial deviation

______ Turning your palm posteriorly

J.   Inversion

______ Moving your arm out to the side

K.   Eversion

______ The position of the knee in standing

L.   Lateral rotation

______ The position of the forearm in anatomical position

M.   Medial rotation

______ Moving the thigh forward and upward

N.   Lateral bending

______ Synonymous with wrist adduction

O.   Circumduction

______ Moving your arm outward from 90 degrees shoulder abduction

P.   Horizontal abduction

______ Moving your foot outward

Q.   Horizontal adduction

______ Moving your scapulae away from the midline

R.   Protraction

______ Turning your arm inward

S.   Retraction


Images Lab Activities

Student’s Name

Date Due

1.    In a group, students perform the following active motions.




Horizontal abduction

Lateral rotation



Horizontal adduction

Medial rotation







Lateral rotation



Medial rotation




2.    Perform the following activities as small groups. Make note of the speed and distance traveled by each person.

A.   Line students up shoulder to shoulder and instruct them to walk across the room keeping their line straight.

B.   Line students up shoulder to shoulder in the middle of the room and instruct them to walk in a circle with the student on the right end as the pivot or anchor.

C.   Repeat activity B with the student on the left end as the pivot or anchor.

D.   Compare the speed of movement of each student in activities A, B, and C.



E.   Compare distance traveled by each student in activities A, B, and C.



F.   What type of motion is performed in activity A?



G.   What type of motion is performed in activities B and C?



3.    To practice palpation, use the finger pads of your right index and middle fingers. Place your fingertips lightly on the anterior surface of your left forearm just proximal to the wrist with your left wrist flexed. Extend your left wrist and note the changing sensations in your fingertips as wrist extension causes the tendons of the wrist and finger flexors to become taut. Move your fingertips medially and laterally (side to side) over the wrist and finger flexor tendons, making note of the changing sensations as you move over the tendons. Note how lightly you are touching and if you are able to palpate the changes. Describe what you feel in your right fingers as you palpated.



4.    Palpate using your finger pads over the muscles on the lateral aspect of your forearm just distal to the elbow joint. Using light pressure, move your fingers over the area. Describe what you feel (hard, soft, firm).



5.    With your finger pads over the muscles on the lateral aspect of your forearm just distal to the elbow joint, gradually increase the pressure of your palpation until it becomes slightly uncomfortable. Note how much pressure you are using. Patients, particularly those in pain or with fragile tissues, may not tolerate that amount of pressure. Repeat the muscle palpation using your fingertips. What problem may you encounter palpating with your fingertips?



6.    Using your finger pads, palpate over the dorsal aspect of the elbow. This is a bony area. Describe what you feel.




7.    Compare the pressure used to palpate at the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Compare and contrast the sensations you feel at each area.



8.    Repeat the previous palpations on your partner. Did you feel the same characteristics as when you palpated yourself? Were you able to adjust your pressure to a comfortable level for your partner while still being able to make the observations you needed?



9.    Place the dorsum (back) of your hand on the anterior surface of your partner’s foot. Gradually move your hand proximally to just proximal to the knee joint. Describe the temperature of your partner’s lower extremity.



10.   Practice the following observation and palpation skills on at least two partners.

A.   Palpate the biceps brachii muscle belly and tendons. The biceps brachii is on the anterior surface of the humerus. Palpate the relaxed muscle, and then palpate while your partner is contracting the muscle.

1)   Describe how you used your hands to palpate (e.g., fingertips, light pressure).



2)   Describe the difference you felt when you palpated the relaxed muscle and the contracted muscle. Did what you palpate feel any different when the biceps muscle was contracting?



3)   Did contracting the muscle help you to find the tendon?



B.   Palpate the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus—bony projections on the medial and lateral sides at the elbow.

1)   Describe how you used your hands to palpate.



2)   Describe what you felt.



C.   Palpate the patellar tendon—first with the quadriceps muscle relaxed, and then with your partner contracting the muscle. The patellar tendon is on the anterior proximal tibia just distal to the patella (kneecap).

1)   Describe how you used your hands to palpate.



2)   Describe what you felt.



3)   Did the tendon feel any different when the quadriceps muscle was contracting?



4)   If you felt a difference in the tendon between the relaxed state and the contracted state, describe the difference.




5)   Did contracting the muscle help you to find the tendon?



D.   Palpate your partner’s pulse at the radial artery, which is located on the anterior surface of the forearm on the lateral side.

1)   Describe how you used your hands to palpate.



2)   Describe how the pulse felt (weak, strong, regular, irregular).



E.   Palpate the ulnar nerve on the posterior medial aspect of the elbow as the nerve passes just lateral to the medial epicondyle.

1)   Describe how you used your hands to palpate the nerve.



2)   Describe what you felt.



3)   Describe how your partner reacted when you palpated the ulnar nerve with increasing pressure.



11.   Posture examination is a visual observation that compares a person’s posture to the normal or ideal posture. Symmetry and deviation from normal posture are noted. Because you have not studied posture yet, compare the second of the following two postures to the first, making note of major changes. Example: In the preferred standing position, your partner shifts a major portion of body weight to the left leg.

A.   Observe your partner while he or she is standing erect with weight distributed equally on both feet, which are placed approximately 4 inches apart with the toes pointed forward.

B.   Observe your partner standing in his or her preferred standing posture.

C.   Describe any major differences between the two postures.



12.   To practice visual observation, look at your partner.

A.   Describe your partner’s physical characteristics such as gender, height, and hair and eye color.



B.   Make faces to represent different emotional and physical states such as happy, sad, mad, and in pain. Your partner is to guess which state you are displaying.

13.   To practice auditory observations, start with your back to your partner so you cannot see what he or she is doing.

A.   While your partner is facing away from you, perform some ADLs such as taking off your shoes, removing your shirt, and walking. Ask your partner to describe what they heard and to tell you what activity you performed.



B.   If you know how, take your partner’s blood pressure, paying particular attention to the sounds rather than the pressure reading. What sounds did you hear? Were there periods of silence? If so, when?




C.   Using a stethoscope, listen to your partner’s heart and lungs. Describe the sounds you heard.


14.   Perform as many of the following motions as possible while standing, sitting, lying supine, and side-lying.

Shoulder girdle:

Elevation and depression

Protraction and retraction

Upward and downward rotation


Flexion, extension, and hyperextension

Abduction and adduction

Horizontal abduction and adduction

Medial and lateral rotation



Flexion and extension


Supination and pronation


Flexion and extension

Radial and ulnar deviation



Flexion and extension

Abduction and adduction


Flexion and extension

Abduction and adduction



Flexion, extension, and hyperextension

Abduction and adduction

Medial and lateral rotation



Flexion and extension


Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

Inversion and eversion


Extension and flexion

15.   Perform the previously listed movements in random order and have your partner name the movement that you are performing.


Images Post-Lab Questions

Student’s Name

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