**u01a1** **–** **Order of Operations,** **Scales of Measurement,Continuous** **Versus** **Discrete Variables, Frequency Distributions, and** **Percentiles**

Complete the following problems within this Word document (do not submit other files). Show your work for problem sets that require calculations. Ensure that your answer to each problem is clearly visible. (You may want to highlight your answer or use a different type of color to set it apart.)

**Problem Set 1.1**: **Order of Operations**

**Criterion**: Apply the appropriate order of operations to solve equations.

**Instruction**: Apply order of operations rules and solve each of these:

a.

b. (8 + 42 – 4)/5

c. 8 – 2 * 3 + 4/2

d. 40 – 6 * 5 – 2

e. – 2

**Note**: To insert a square root symbol (), click the **Insert**tab in the Toolbar and in the **Symbols** section click **Equation.** (If **Equation** is grey and unresponsive, open a new document and complete your work there.) Next, click **Radical**and choose the best option. The square root will appear inside a frame (see picture at right). To enter numbers into the square root, click the dotted line box. When done, click outside the frame. Then, you can copy and paste the work where you like.

**Problem** **Set 1.2**: **Scales of Measurement**

**Criterion**: Identify appropriate scales of measurement for stated variables.

**Instruction**: Identify the highest possible scale (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) for the following:

a. Preferred political party.b. Number of children.c. Number of sodas you drank today.d. Temperature in Fahrenheit.e. Class rank.

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**Problem** **Set 1.3**: **Scales of Measurement (2)**

**Criterion**: Identify appropriate scales of measurement for stated variables.

**Instruction**: Identify the highest possible scale (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) for the following:

a. Gender.b. Weight of an object.c. Book genre.d. Extraversion.e. Award categories at the Oscars.

**Problem** **Set 1.4**: **Continuous** **Versus** **Discrete Variables**

**Criterion**: Differentiate between continuous and discrete variables.

**Instruction**: Identify the below variables as continuous (*C*) or discrete (*D*):

a. Time it takes to fall asleep.

b. Number of languages you speak.

c. Number of adults living in a household.

d. Speed of an airplane.

e. Weight of cars.

**Problem** **Set 1.5**: **Frequency Table**

• **Criterion**: Construct a table showing frequency and cumulative frequency.• **Instruction**: Use the provided data to complete the table below showing frequency and cumulative frequency.• **Data**: Twenty people were asked how many computers they own:

1, 2, 0, 1, 3, 4, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 0, 1, 1.

**Frequency and Cumulative Frequency of** **Computer Ownership**

**Number of Computers**

**Frequency**

**Cumulative Frequency**

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**Problem Set** **1.6**: **Grouped Frequency Table**

• **Criterion**: Evaluate and implement the most effective table option to show grouped frequency.• **Instruction**: A psychology professor wants to examine how many times her students missed class during the previous semester. Use the supplied data to complete Steps 1–4. • **Data**: Forty students registered in the class. The attendance records revealed the following number of absences for each student:

0, 2, 0, 6, 3, 6, 7, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 4, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 5, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 6, 8, 1, 2, 1, 1, 0.

• **Steps:**1. Create a grouped frequency table in 2-miss intervals.2. Create a grouped frequency table in 4-miss intervals.3. Create a grouped frequency table in 6-miss intervals.4. Which one of these tables provides the clearest picture of the data? Explain why you think so.

**Problem Set** **1.7**: **Create** **Ascending and Descending Frequency Tables in SPSS**

• **Criterion**: Create ascending and descending frequency tables in SPSS.• **Instruction**: Complete the following steps:1. Open SPSS.2. Click **New DataSet** in the New Files area, and then click **Open**.3. Click the **Variable View** tab.4. In the Name area, type **Attendance** (we will use the scores from Problem Set 1.6).5. Our variable of **Attendance** is discrete so we will enter 0 in the **Decimals** column.6. Click the **Data View** tab.7. Enter all 40 numbers from Problem Set 1.6 on class attendance in the column labeled **Attendance**.8. In the Toolbar, click **Analyze**, select **Descriptive Statistics**, and then select **Frequencies**.9. Click **Attendance** and then click **Arrow** to send it over to the right side of the table.10. Click **OK**. Copy and paste the ascending values frequency table into this Word document.11. Go back to the **Data View** tab, click **Analyze**, select **Descriptive Statistics**, and then select **Frequencies**.12. Click **Format** and then click **Descending Values.** Click **Continue** and then **OK.** Copy and paste the descending values frequency into this Word document.

**Note**: Your answers to this problem set should be two separate SPSS outputs. **Save your Attendance data to use in the next two problems**.

*(Assessment* *continues on next page.)*

**Problem Set** **1.8**: **Construct a Bar Graph in SPSS**

• **Criterion**: Construct a bar graph in SPSS.• **Instruction**: The attendance data from **Problem Set** **1.6** is discrete. Complete the following steps to create a bar chart to examine this data:1. Go back to your SPSS Statistics Data Editor where your**Attendance** data should be displayed.2. In the Toolbar, click **Graphs**, select **Legacy Dialogs**, and then select **Bar**.3. Click **Simple** and then click **Define.** Click **Attendance** and then click **Arrow** to send it over to the **Category Axis** box.4. Click **OK**. Copy and paste the bar graph below. (Hint: You might need to use **Copy Special** and click the .**jpeg** option.)5. **Optional to answer:** What is the shape of the distribution?

**Problem Set** **1.9**: **Construct a Pie Chart in SPSS**

• **Criterion**: Construct a pie chart in SPSS.• **Instruction**: Complete the following steps to create a pie chart to examine the attendance data from **Problem Set** **1.6**.1. Go back to your SPSS Statistics Data Editor where your**Attendance** data should be displayed.2. Go back to the **Data View** tab, click **Graphs**, select **Legacy Dialogs**, and then select **Pie.**3. Click **Summaries for** **Groups of** **Case** and then **Define.** Click **Attendance** and then click **Arrow** to send it over to the **Define Slices By** box. 4. Click **OK**. Copy and paste the pie graph below.

**Problem Set** **1.10**: **Construct a** **Histogram** **in** **SPSS**

• **Criterion**: Construct a histogram in SPSS.• **Instruction**: Use the supplied data to complete Steps 1–4. • **Data**: The air-conditioning unit in an office building went out for two days during a 20-day time period. The following is a list of the average daily temperatures in the building during this period:

72, 74, 72, 75, 71, 74, 75, 78, 76, 74, 72, 75, 88, 92, 79, 75, 72, 74, 76, 73.

• **Steps**:1. Enter the data into SPSS using the variable label of **Temperature**.2. In the Toolbar, click **Graphs**, select **Legacy Dialogs**, and then select **Histogram**.3. Click **Temperature** and then click **Arrow** to send it over to the **Variable** box. 4. Click **OK**. Copy and paste the histogram into this Word document.