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Reply 1 

  1. Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?
    1. Quantitative: objectively measurable. Intentional, we can test an effect on an intervention. (Gray, 2016). Multiple Causality: when two or more variables are studied at a time producing an effect.
    2. Strengths:  Healthcare science of epidemiology, pathophysiology have engaged in Multiple Causality design for the past decade ( Gray, 2016).
    3. Rationale: Utilize study versus control/comparison groups, multiple Casualty  allows studying two or more causative factors at a time.  The data collected is prospective in nature of the design.
  2. What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?
    1. Qualitative:  The purposes of qualitative studies include the phenomenon of interest, the population, and often the setting (Gray, 2016). This is because this is related to more of how the subjects feel about the issue at hand. Qualitative analysis techniques use words rather than numbers as the basis of analysis. In qualitative analysis, reasoning flows from the images, documents, or words provided by the participant toward more abstract concepts and themes. Themes are patterns in the data, ideas that are repeated by more than one participant. This reasoning process, inductive thinking, guides the organizing, reducing, and clustering of data (Gray, 2019).  Differences of perception are generally related to reduce pleasure and intimacy while also considering prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (Fehr, 2017).
    2. Strengths include using semi structured interview processes with regards to participants comfort and confidentiality. Weaknesses the researcher’s level of proficiency and ability to interview.  Weaknesses also include samples that are generally not as large as quantitative research studies.  It is also important for the researcher to be aware of their own bias in relation to the issue, in order to not attach their own perceived meaning of the research.  Data collection surrounding electronic and internet interviews have limitations on participants with ability to read and write and that can use the computer.
    3. Rationale:  With Maximum variation sampling as part of the qualitative research design Recruitment of participants who represent potentially different experiences related to the domain of interest.  In this case it would be subjective experiences of male versus female college students in relation to their attitudes towards condoms.
  3. What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?
    1. Quantitative: objectively measurable.  Time Dimensional
    2. Strengths include being useful in establishing patterns and trends and therefore are useful data collection prior to interventional design (Gray, 2016). Useful in studying epidemiology and disease occurrence. Weaknesses: Only really able to utilize it for studying causation.
    3. Rationale:  Time Dimensional  descriptive research design, as we are looking at a collective effect over time. Interventional research is not appropriate for investigation of certain health problems.  When studying time dimensional we are collective information over a period of time that would imply a causation including the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer.


Fehr, S. K., Vidourek, R. A., King, K. A., & Nabors, L. A. (2017). Perceived Barriers and Benefits of Condom Use among College Students. American Journal of Health Studies, 32(4), 219–233.

PhD, Jennifer R. Gray, PhD, RN, FAAN, Susan K. Grove, PhD, RN, ANP-BC, GNP-BC and Suzanne S. Burns & Grove’s the Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence. Available from: South University, (8th Edition). Elsevier Health Sciences (US), [2016

Reply 2

Impacts of Childhood Asthma on Health

Specifically, the purpose of this study is to examine the research questions that have been presented. In order to maintain relevance, the aim is to answer the research questions using supporting resources from reliable sources that have been published within the recent five years rather than older materials. As a result, three separate themes are covered in detail, as is the justification for each of the presented study designs. Each research design has been evaluated, highlighting its pros and weaknesses.

Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?

This question tries to determine which method of handwashing is the most beneficial when it comes to assessing efficiency. Using soap and water instead of alcohol-based treatments is preferred. Alcohol kills bacteria and viruses, making alcohol-based disinfection treatments effective (Oluwatuyi et al., 2020). As a result of these changes, it is more effective than soap and water.

Because it is a tried and true research design, a controlled clinical trial can be employed to evaluate this study subject. This method could be used to determine if soap and water or alcohol-based rubs are more effective in preventing nosocomial infections in hospitals. The following is the selection rationale: This data can be used to determine which of the two groups, soap, and water or alcohol-based rubs, is the most effective at preventing nosocomial infections in hospitals.

By their very nature, controlled trials allow researchers to identify the most helpful variable within the context of a research topic (Reis, 2018). Again, there are fewer chances of making mistakes and fewer opportunities of influencing a study. This study design has the advantage of using appropriate comparison groups, which leads to more confidence in the findings because they are drawn from a larger sample size than other designs. As a result of the outcomes of randomized controlled clinical trials, a researcher can make suggestions on the most effective strategy of ensuring hand hygiene, which can be used to guide future research. This stage must be completed regardless of the method used, whether soap and water or alcohol-based solutions.

The basic constraint of this study design is that practically all controlled clinical trials are subject to complex ethical approval processes since they involve human individuals as subjects in an experiment.

What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?

This research aims to see if there is a link between breast cancer and alcohol consumption. Alcohol causes the genetic material that makes up the human genome to decompose. Furthermore, drinking has been linked to an increase in the incidence of breast cancer by increasing estrogen levels (Baglia et al., 2018). According to research, women who drink at least three alcoholic beverages per week have a 15% higher risk of having breast cancer than women who do not drink alcoholic beverages.

A cohort study would be suitable for analyzing the link between breast cancer and alcohol intake in terms of research design. One of the key benefits of using this research design in studies is that it allows researchers to detect a wide range of alcohol-associated outcomes that aren’t just related to breast cancer. However, this research design is limited in its application because it does not apply to rare illnesses. For example, there are a variety of causes of cancer in women that are not always linked to alcohol consumption; as a result, not all cancer cases are caused by alcohol consumption (Rumgay et al., 2021).

What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?

As a result of these investigations, men reported using condoms at significantly higher rates than women during sexual relations. On the other hand, females have a more positive attitude toward condoms and are better informed about how to use them effectively.

A comparative cross-sectional study would be the most appropriate research technique for determining whether there is a difference in views toward condom use among college students.

The attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms differ, which may be essential in determining the differences between the two groups. This research technique is less expensive and time-consuming than other research strategies because the study is only conducted once, and there is no further follow-up to assess the results. As a result, it can be completed in less time while still producing correct results.

As a study design, comparative cross-sectional studies have several problems. The most significant of them is that it is difficult to provide information on whether the change in attitude occurs over time (Spector, 2019). Students’ attitudes toward contraception are bound to alter as they learn more about the topic and are subjected to critical scrutiny; therefore, their viewpoint is likely to vary. As a result, the research approach used does not account for this shift in thinking.


Three research questions were chosen from among the available topics for the study. As a result, the most appropriate research design has been assigned to each topic for the completion of the study. The rationale for selecting study designs and the pros and downsides of various approaches are also discussed.

A controlled clinical trial is the most appropriate research methodology for examining the effectiveness of alcohol-based solutions over soap and water in preventing nosocomial infections through handwashing. A cohort study is the most accepted research technique for the link between female alcohol usage and breast cancer. Finally, a comparative cross-sectional study will be performed to investigate the differences in attitudes between male and female college students about the use of condoms as a contraceptive measure.


Baglia, M. L., Cook, L. S., Mei‐Tzu, C., Wiggins, C., Hill, D., Porter, P., & Li, C. I. (2018). Alcohol, smoking, and risk of H er2‐overexpressing and triple‐negative breast cancer relative to estrogen receptor‐positive breast cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 143(8), 1849-1857.

Oluwatuyi, S. V., Agbele, A. T., Ogunrinde, M. E., Ayo, A. T. V., Ayo, A. M., Fayoke, A. B., … & Deborah, A. A. (2020). Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: Review of Efficacy and Adverse Effect. Alcohol, 81.

Reis, H. T. (2018). Why researchers should think “real-world”: A conceptual rationale. In Relationships, well-being, and behavior (pp. 249-271). Routledge.

Rumgay, H., Shield, K., Charvat, H., Ferrari, P., Sornpaisarn, B., Obot, I., … & Soerjomataram, I. (2021). Global burden of cancer in 2020 attributable to alcohol consumption: A population-based study. The Lancet Oncology, 22(8), 1071-1080.

Spector, P. E. (2019). Do not cross me: Optimizing the use of cross-sectional designs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 125-137.

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