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 Respond with at least 150 words (each) to a classmates’ post

Question

Leonard works in the agriculture industry and raises beef cattle. At 60 years of age, he has spent most of his life working outdoors harvesting hay and tending to his herds. His wife was the first to notice a change in his skin. One day, after taking off his shirt, she noticed a significant change in the mole he had on his right shoulder. It not only was darker but was moist and appeared to have been bleeding at one point. Surrounding the mole, his skin was red. His wife remembered hearing stories of Leonard working on his father’s farm, spending long hours out in the hot sun even though his father had gone into the barn to work during the hottest part of the day. She insisted him go to the family physician to have it examined (Chapter 52, Learning Objectives 10 and 11).

  1. Leonard’s physician performed a biopsy on the lesion and told Leonard he suspected the growth may be malignant melanoma. What cells are affected in this form of skin cancer? How might his childhood exposures to the sun predispose him to this form of cancer?
  2. How do UVA and UVB rays contribute to the process of oncogenesis in skin cells?
  3. The mole on Leonard’s shoulder was a nevocellular nevus. What are the cellular composition and appearance of this type of mole before it underwent malignant change?


classmate

Leonard’s physician performed a biopsy on the lesion and told Leonard he suspected the growth may be malignant melanoma. What cells are affected in this form of skin cancer? How might his childhood exposures to the sun predispose him to this form of cancer?

The melanocytes cells are affected by malignant melanoma, which is a tumor. Exposure to the sun for extended periods of time pose a serious danger for developing this kind of melanoma. Young and middle-aged individuals are more susceptible to developing melanoma as a result of early childhood severe sunburns and sporadic excessive sun exposure. In white people, skin exposed to the sun is where around 90% of malignant melanomas develop (Norris, (2019).

How do UVA and UVB rays contribute to the process of oncogenesis in skin cells?

Sunburn is brought on by ultraviolet light, which also raises the risk of skin cancer. Both the DNA and the skin can be harmed by UV radiation. inhibits the skin’s immune defenses. Depending on the UV type and exposure level, it can impair skin immunity, raising the likelihood of skin cell oncogenesis (Norris, (2019). The longer wavelength UVA reaches well into the dermis and penetrates there. Contrarily, only a little amount of UVB exposure reaches the dermis since it is virtually entirely absorbed by the epidermis. Reactive oxygen species can harm DNA by indirect photosensitizing processes, and UVA is effective at producing these species. Direct UVB absorption by DNA leads to molecular rearrangements that result in the formation of certain photoproducts, such cyclobutane dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. Many of these DNA changes have the potential to cause mutations and cancer (D’Orazio et al. (2013).

The mole on Leonard’s shoulder was a nevocellular nevus. What are the cellular composition and appearance of this type of mole before it underwent malignant change?

The multiplication of melanocytes in the epidermis or dermis causes pigmented skin lesions known as nevocellular nevi. Small papules with well-defined, rounded margins, ranging in color from tan to deep brown, are neocellular nevi. Initially, they are created by melanocytes, which are basal keratinocytes that have lengthy dendritic extensions. Along the dermal-epidermal junction, the melanocytes undergo transformation into ovoid or spherical cells that contain melanin and develop in nests or clusters. The name “junctional nevi” or “active nevi” refers to the location of these lesions. Most junctional nevi eventually form nests or cords of cells that blend into the dermis around them. The epidennal and dermal layers of compound nevi are present (Norris, (2019). 

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