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Module 1 – SLP

STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE

Note: If you have trouble viewing some of the course materials, install Quicktime and the Adobe Shockwave Player, both of which can be downloaded free from the Internet.

As you work through this SLP assignment, you will learn more about the flexibility, or plasticity, of the brain. You have learned about how the spinal nerves can deliver messages directly to effector organs from the CNS through peripheral nerves that branch off of the spinal cord. These nerves are collections of neurons bundled in connective tissue. Neurons also communicate with each other within the CNS and establish circuits and neuronal pathways.

First take some time to work through these tutorials about how neurons communicate:

  1. Neurons communicate with each other
  2. Neurons communicate at synapses
  3. Communication is delivered via the axon
  4. Synapses and neurotransmitters: Be sure to click on “Presynaptic neuron,” “synaptic cleft,” and “postsynaptic neuron.”

Throughout life, the connections between neurons in the brain develop and change according to the genetic foundations that the individual inherits from the parents, and the environmental influences to which the individual must respond. For example, the abundance of one type of neuron over another, and the neurotransmitter that each produces can be predetermined by the DNA an individual inherits. However, an individual who is exposed to chronic stress during developmental years may reinforce some response pathways more than individuals who do not experience the same patterns of stress. These points are summarized and explained further in this article “Stress Management,” provided by the Mayo Clinic. Read this brief article before continuing to the requirements for this SLP.

Continue your reading on how the brain handles stress and the idea of plasticity at BrainFacts.org, a public information initiative of the Society for Neuroscience, The Kavli Foundation, and Gatsby. Read the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?” and follow the link to the article, “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain” in the right-hand column of links provided on this page.
Address these questions in paragraph format to complete the SLP assignment for Module 1:

  1. What is a neurotransmitter and what is its function?
  2. What neurotransmitter is mentioned in the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?”
  3. How is short-term stress described in this article?
  4. Do a little independent research on the hippocampus. Where is it located in the brain? Briefly describe its function and neurogenesis. Insert a labeled picture into your assignment illustrating its location.
  5. How is long-term stress differentiated from short-term stress in this article? What brain region is involved in this comparison and what is its general function? Insert a labeled picture of this region into your assignment illustrating its location in the brain.
  6. After reading the article “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain,” explain the implications of chronic stress on the brain and the rest of the body reported by the authors. What examples of chronic stressors are included?
  7. What components of parental care are described as being important determinants of brain development in this article? What genetic influences are described as relevant to the ability to handle stressful environments?

SLP Assignment Expectations

Organize this assignment using subtitles related to the content for each question. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a references section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.

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