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2. Topic: Polio and Surveillance

Each thread must be not less than 500 words and support your assertions with at least 2 citations besides the course texts and the Bible.


The last case of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949. A worldwide campaign to find new cases followed. Case clusters persisted into the 1960s and 70s. The last case was finally diagnosed in Somalia in 1977. The disease was declared eradicated by the WHO 2 years later and by 1980 the routine administration of the vaccine ended throughout the world.

Polio has been targeted as the next viral disease to be eliminated; however, many challenges continue. In the 1940s and early 1950s, an average of more than 35,000 cases per year occurred in the United States. With the advent of the Salk, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the live Sabin, oral polio vaccine (OPV) naturally occurring paralytic polio cases rapidly diminished in the United States. The last outbreak occurred in the Midwest among the Amish community in 1979. The last imported case of wild-strain polio in the US was diagnosed in 1993. An additional 154 cases related to the use of the live OPV were seen between 1980 and 1999. Since 2000 the US has abandoned the use of OPV in favor of the inactivated vaccine (IPV) as a safer vaccine given the elimination of wild-virus disease in the US.

Globally the efforts to eradicate paralytic polio persist. The disease continues to be endemic in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and to cause periodic outbreaks in other countries in sub-Sahara Africa. In these areas, the live OPV is the vaccine of choice.

Unfortunately OPV still poses a small risk of vaccine-related polio, or of transmission of vaccine-derived polio virus infection (VDPV). In fact, several cases of imported VDPV have occurred in the US since 2005 despite the use of IPV.


  1. Why did OPV remain the vaccine of choice in endemic areas?
  2. Did the US make the right decision to switch from OPV to IPV?
  3. Why is VDPV being seen in the US?
  4. What should be the global policy for the use of polio vaccines?


Can the eradication of a disease-causing organism be justified scripturally? Cite Old and/or New Testament passages to support your position.




3. Topic: Dietary Laws

Each thread must be not less than 500 words and support your assertions with at least 2 citations besides the course texts and the Bible.


Infectious diseases, including many covered in the last 2 modules/weeks, can often be prevented through simple educational measures. Many of these diseases are related to food consumption. Some people believe the dietary laws of the Old Testament are merely a collection of restrictions based on crude human observations of disease causation prior to the discovery of the biology of parasitic diseases. Read Deuteronomy 14:3-21. Identify a disease associated with clean animals and a disease associated with unclean animals in the list. Before making a pledge to become a vegetarian, find a parasitic disease associated with vegetables.

Now, using the 3 diseases you have identified, create your own protocol to control spread of these diseases. Take full advantage of modern science as you make your recommendations but bear in mind not everyone has equal availability of all technologies.

Finally, render an opinion about the purpose of the dietary laws in Deuteronomy. Cite scripture to validate your opinion.




4.Topic: West Nile Encephalitis as an Emerging Disease

Each thread must be not less than 500 words and support your assertions with at least 2 citations besides the course texts and the Bible.


Since the appearance of HIV/AIDS as a disease entity in the last quarter of the 20th century a growing number of emerging infectious diseases have been identified. Some of these diseases are “new” and some are old nemeses returning with new epidemiologic features. For the purpose of discussion, consider West Nile Encephalitis.


  1. What are the environmental forces behind the emergence of West Nile Encephalitis in the United States?
  2. What are the social and behavioral factors of West Nile Encephalitis epidemiology?
  3. What types of control measures have been used to manage this disease?
  4. Are there any environmental or humanitarian concerns about any of the control measures?


What scriptural principles could be applied to the control of disease outbreaks? Provide references for your ideas.


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